10th NEW YORK VOLUNTEER CALVARY
Organized: Summer/Fall, 1861 Elmira, NY
Cos. "A" - "H" 9/27 - 12/28/1861
Cos. "I", "K" & "L" 10/29 - 30/1862
Co. "M" Nov. /Dec., 1862 & Feb., 1863
Mustered Out: 7/10/1865
1st NEW YORK PROVISIONAL CAVALRY
Mustered Out: 7/19/1865 Cloud Mills, VA
REGIMENTAL HISTORY: (10th)
The 10th New York, also known as the Porter Guard, was a three year cavalry regiment. During the American Civil War (ACW) it served in the eastern combat theater.
Organized in Elmira, New York, companies were recruited from the counties of Chemung, Chenango, Cortland, Erie, Fulton, Onondaga and Steuben. They were mustered into Federal service between September, 1861 and February, 1863.
The first eight companies of the 10th left the state on 12/24/1861. They were stationed at Gettysburg, PA during the remainder of that winter.
Spring, 1862 found the 10th performing railroad guard duties and serving in the defenses of Washington, D.C. During the D.C. period it was mounted.
The 10th saw its first active service during the Second Manassas campaign in August of '62. Later that same year, in December, it was at Fredericksburg, VA.
During May, 1863 the regiment participated in the Stoneman raid. In June it encountered its hardest fighting at Brandy Station, VA (6/9). There, it suffered six killed, 18 wounded and sixty one missing. At Middleburg (6/17 - 19) its loss was thirty, while at Bristoe Station (10/14) and other locales - including Gettysburg, PA (7/1 - 3) - it lost fifty three.
Early 1864 there were more unit losses at Haw's Shop (5/28) and Trevelyan Station (6/11 12). The 10th suffered a latter year loss of seventeen at the Boydton Plank Road (10/27 - 28). All these locations were in Virginia.
In the final Appomattox, VA campaign of 1865 regimental losses were seventy two killed, wounded and missing.
The above-listed engagements only scratch the surface of the major and minor combats encountered by the 10th. That is why the regiment was rated as one of the three hundred fight ingest regiments of The War. It is also why four members of the unit were awarded the Medal Of Honor.
The shooting war ended; on 7/10/1865 the 10th was mustered out of Federal service and discharged. At that time re-enlisted veterans and new recruits were consolidated with the 24th New York Cavalry. This "new" organization was then designed the 1st Provisional Regiment of New York Cavalry (See 1st Prov. Cav. Hist. Below).
Officers Killed Or Mortally Wounded: 9; Officers Died Of Disease, Accidents, Etc.:1; Enlisted Men Killed Or Mortally Wounded: 93; Enlisted Men Died Of Disease, Accidents, Etc.148.
REGIMENTAL HISTORY: (1st)
With America's Civil War having officially ended in May, 1865, the U.S. Government quickly moved to save money by either eliminating or merging no longer needed military units. The latter action involved various state units being “consolidated" prior to their being mustered out and discharged.
Under orders from the War Department dated 6/17/1865 the 10th and 24th New York cavalry regiments were combined by consolidation. According to available documentation, the merger occurred on 7/10/1865 with companies of the old organizations corresponding to new ones in the 1st. Although apparently designated as a three year regiment, the new 1st provisional organization appears to have existed - perhaps only on paper - for nine days before it, too was mustered out and honorably discharged into history.
No Loss Information Available.
Residence: Inf. Not Avail. Age: 17.6 yrs.
Enlisted/Enrolled: 10/5/1861` Galen or Clyde, NY Rank: Pvt.
Mustered In: 10/19/1861 Buffalo, NY
Transferred Out: 7/10/1865
Highest Rank: Pvt.
Rank At Discharge: Pvt.
Residence: Inf. Not Avail. Age: 21.3 yrs.
Transferred In: 7/10/1865 Rank: Pvt.
Mustered Out: 6/8/1865 Elmira, NY
Highest Rank: Pvt.
Rank At Discharge: Pvt.
Byron B. "James"* Bowman - was born 3/26/1844. His place of birth was Port Byron Cayuga County, NY.
Parents of Byron were Isaac S. Bowman (b. 1819 NY - d. 1895 Rose Wayne County, NY) and Caroline (nee Kent b. 3/1820 NY - d. 1900 Rose Wayne County, NY) Bowman. In 1850 at Seneca Falls, Seneca County, NY, Isaac Bowman listed his occupation as "farmer". In 1860 - at Galen Wayne County, NY, it was "laborer."
In terms of available documentation, Byron and his brother Edward ** were the second and third born of ten Bowman children. Older was a child identified only as E. Bowman (b. 1843 NY). Younger were Frances Bowman (b. 1846 NY), Walter Bowman *** (b. 1848 NY), George Bowman (b. 1852 NY), Charles Bowman (b. 1856 NY), Mary Bowman (b. 1858 or '60 NY), Elmer Bowman (b. 1865 NY) and Ada Bowman (b. 1868). [Note: All birth years subject to error.]
Available documents appear to indicate that Byron remained with his parents until, in 1861, he enlisted in the U.S. Army. The unit in which he enlisted was the 10th New York Cavalry. At that time we gain a glimpse of farmer Byron Bowman the physical being. He was described as five feet, nine inches tall, with black eyes, black hair and a fair complexion.
As for his service tenure, without accessing Private Bowman's military records, about all that can be said is that he survived the trials and tribulations of army life. And, he did face some daunting examples of both. The most serious was that on 11/19/1863 during actions around Grove Church, VA he was captured by the enemy. Private Bowman's shooting war may have ended, but his struggles of survival had just begun.
Although one document indicates Private Bowman may have been paroled following his capture, other documental notations indicate that, at some point in time after his capture he was incarcerated at the Rebel's notoriously deadly Camp Sumter prisoner of war (P.O.W.) facility located in Andersonville, GA. He may have remained there until, The War having ended, he was released via a 4/1865 prisoner exchange.
With military life behind him, where Byron may have initially settled upon returning to the civilian world is not known. It appears, however, that it may have been on the family farm with his parents and siblings in Galen Wayne County, NY as that is where the U.S. Census for 1870 found him.
1880. Another decade. Another U.S. Census. By the time of that population tally Byron had not only departed the family farm, he had left the state of New York, married and fathered children.
Byron's bride was Maria Fulton. Maria had been born during the year 1843 in Wayne County, NY, so - very likely - the two had known one another since childhood. Exactly when they married is not known, but it can be surmised that the wedding date was circa 1870/'71. Another likelihood is that the couple initially settled in New York before moving to Michigan.
By 1880 Byron and Marie were farming in Sheridan Huron County, MI. What had drawn them there and, specifically when are unknowns. Further, by 1880 Byron and Maria had two: Lillian Bowman (b.1872 NY) and Grace C. Bowman (b. 3/17/1879 MI).
In 1900 Maria would tell census takers that she had birthed three children all of whom were living. The third child's name is not found in available documents.
Finally, in 1910 Maria would report she and Byron had produced four children three of whom were then alive. Again, however, as with the third, the name of the fourth child is not provided.
The dawn of the twentieth century found the Bowmans, no longer in Michigan, but in Port Angeles Clallam County, WA. The date they had arrived there is not known. Also, what had drawn them to the Pacific Northwest is not disclosed. . In 1900 Byron's occupation was simply "laborer," but by 1910 it was "sawmill plainer," so maybe the draw was the area's nascent timber industry.
Dropping back some years, on 9/23/1879 (while in Michigan) Byron applied for and was granted a U.S. Government disability pension based on his Civil War service. Basis for the granting was chronic diarrhea, epilepsy, scurvy and rheumatism all of which traced back to his soldiering and prisoner of war days.**** His initial stipend was seventeen dollars per month, but by May of 1920 the payment had increased to fifty dollars per month.
Marie died in Port Angeles, WA on 9/21/1917 of unknown causes. She was/is buried in the Ocean View Cemetery.
Byron B. "James" Bowman died on 9/25/1923 in Port Angeles Clallam County, WA. Cause of death was documented as being carcinoma (cancer) of the stomach. At the time of his passing he was seventy nine years and five months old. Burial was/is in the Ocean View Cemetery with Maria.
* The moniker "James" in available documents first appears in connection with Mr. Bowman's military service. How and when the name was acquired and its significance are unknowns.
** During the American Civil War (ACW) Edward served in Co. "K" of the 19th New York Infantry. He survived.
*** During the American Civil War (ACW) Walter served in Co. "K" of the 19th New York Infantry. He survived.
**** Looking back at Private Bowman's Civil War service he is credited as serving with both the l0th New York Cavalry and the 1st New York Provisional Cavalry. However, based on available dates, it would seem he likely never was physically part of the 1st because he was mustered out of the military prior to that organization being formed. As such, it is surmised that because of his p.o.w. status he was carried on unit muster rosters even though physically, he may not have been present. Accessing military service records would help clarify this anomaly.
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